Evaluation of Temperature Elevation in Human Ocular Tissues due to Wireless Eyewear Devices
Lan J, Du G. Evaluation of temperature elevation in human ocular tissues due to wireless eyewear devices. ACES Journal. 34(1):17-24. 2019. 
In this paper, a numerical study is proposed to evaluate the temperature variation in the human ocular tissues during the electromagnetic radiation exposure from wireless eyewear device. The results show that the temperature in the whole eyeball increases gradually as the exposure time goes on and could reach the thermal steady state at about 30 minutes. During this process, the temperature increments in different ocular tissues are between 1.1°C and 1.7°C. The results also show the maximal ratio of temperature increments in the initial 5 and 10 minutes to that of the whole steady state could reach to 42.9% and 69.2%, respectively. Therefore, we believe that electromagnetic radiation from wireless eyewear device might pose a threat on the health of the human eyes. People should decrease the talk time as soon as possible to protect their eyes from the possible health hazards. Finally, attention is paid to evaluate the relationship between the maximal SAR and the temperature increments. The results show the temperature increments do not increase in direct proportion to the maximal SAR, which indicates that the maximal SAR and the temperature increments should be taken into account simultaneously while evaluating the biological effect of microwave on the ocular tissues.
Conclusions


Based on the results evaluated in this paper, we find that the temperature in the whole eyeball increases gradually and reaches the thermal steady state at about 30 minutes during the EM exposure of wireless eyewear device. The temperature increments in different ocular tissues are from 1°C to 1.7°C. We, therefore, believe EM exposure from wireless eyewear device may pose a threat on the health of the eyes, especially for the lens which suffer from the maximal temperature increments. Meanwhile, the results also show that the maximal ratio of temperature increments in the initial 5 and 10 minutes exposure time to that of the complete thermal steady state could reach to 42.9% and 69.2%, respectively. Hence, wireless eyewear device users should shorten the usage time as soon as possible to protect their eyes from the possible health hazards. Finally, we evaluate the relationship between the maximal SAR and the temperature increments in the ocular tissues. We find that the temperature increments do not increase in direct proportion to the maximal SAR. Therefore, we believe the maximal SAR and the temperature increments should be taken into account simultaneously while evaluating the biological effect of microwave on the ocular tissues. This paper could provide valuable data for the establishment of related safety standards and future researches in the biological effect of microwave and human eyes. However, limited by the experimental condition, the experiment is not included. Therefore, conclusions presented in this paper are just indicative but not definitive.







On the effects of glasses on the SAR in human head resulting from wireless eyewear devices at phone call state


Lan JQ, Liang X, Hong T, Du GH. On the effects of glasses on the SAR in human head resulting from wireless eyewear devices at phone call state. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2018 Feb 8. doi: 10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2018.02.001.

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Abstract

This paper evaluates the effects of glasses on the specific absorption rates (SAR) in the human head resulting from wireless eyewear device at phone call state. We mainly concentrate on the SAR in the eyes since their sensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EMF). We find wearing glasses obviously alters the distribution and magnitude of the SAR. The maximal SAR in the ocular tissues with glasses is even 6 times more than that without glasses. Wearing glasses also induce the new hotspot in the eyes which may cause the biggest SAR increment in the ocular tissues. Moreover, calculated results indicate that the maximal SAR is sensitive to the size of glasses and radiation frequency. Because of this, we believe wearing glasses may possibly increase the risk of health hazard to eyes of wireless eyewear device user. These calculated results could be a valuable reference for the glasses designer to reduce the SAR in the eyes.



https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29428220

Conclusions




Based on the calculated results, we find wearing glasses obviously alters the distribution and magnitude of SAR. The maximal SAR in the ocular tissues with glasses is even 6 times more than that without glasses. Wearing glasses also could induce the new hotspot in the eyeballs which may cause the biggest SAR increment in the ocular tissues. Moreover, calculated results indicate that the maximal SAR is sensitive to the size of glasses and radiation frequency. Therefore, we believe wearing glasses may possibly increase the risk of health hazard to human eyes. In order to decrease the SAR in the ocular tissues, people should choose the adaptive glasses according to the radiation frequency. If possible, we advise people to take off their glasses when they use the eyewear device. These calculated results could be a valuable reference for the glasses designer to reduce the SAR in the eyes. However, due to the limited research conditions, the experiment is not included. So conclusions, in this paper, are just indicative but not definitive.






March 22, 2017


The Google Glass, an optical head-mounted display designed in the shape of a pair of eyeglasses, was not embraced by the general public when it was introduced in 2013-2014. So Google changed its marketing strategy to target specific occupational needs including healthcare, military, and sports applications.

Recently, a colleague told me that some physician offices in California require their staff
to wear the Glass. Last week, National Public Radio reported that some
factory workers must also wear the Glass.
Tasnim Shamma, Google
Glass Didn’t Disappear. You Can Find It On The Factory Floor.
WABE/National
Public Radio, March 18, 2017.
http://n.pr/2nDG22d
Following is a press release I prepared three years ago which provides precautionary
information about this wireless device. SAR values for the latest model of the Google Glass follow the press release.
Google Glass Alert: Potential health risks
from wireless radiation
The Google Glass emits more wireless radiation than most cell
phones on the market, but unlike cell phone users, Glass users may be wearing
this device on their heads for more than 12 hours a day putting their health at
risk.
By Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., School of
Public Health, University of California, Berkeley
BERKELEY, Calif. – April
15, 2014
 – 
PRLog — The Google Glass emits both Wi-Fi and Bluetooth
radiation. Although the Glass official web site,
http://www.google.com/glass/start/ , contains information warning consumers about the device’s
potential interference with radio or television reception, the site provides no
safety information to consumers.
As a body-worn, microwave-emitting device, Google is required
by Federal law to test the Specific Absorption Rate or SAR of the Glass. This
is a measure of the maximum microwave radiation absorbed by the user in 6
minutes averaged over one gram of tissue. 
Although Google did not post the SAR
information on its web site, the Glass test reports can be found on the FCC’s
web site at [
https://fccid.io/document.php?id=1910822]. The FCC ID for the current
version of the Glass is X1.



The official test report indicates that the SAR
for the Glass is much higher than the SARs for the iPhone 5, the Samsung Galaxy
S5, or most cell phones on the market.

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During the last year, Google improved the
antenna on the Glass which resulted in an increase in the SAR from 1.11 to 1.42
watts/kilogram (W/kg).  In contrast, the Samsung Galaxy S5 has a head and
body SAR of 0.57 and 0.64 W/kg, respectively. The Apple iPhone 5 has a head SAR
of 1.17 and a body SAR of 1.18 W/kg.

In the U.S. no personal wireless device can have
a SAR that exceeds 1.6 W/kg. The SAR standard, however, was developed several
decades ago in the U.S. primarily by physicists and engineers to protect users
from the acute effects of the heat generated by microwave radiation. The
standards do not protect users from the non-thermal effects of cell phone
radiation which have been associated with increased brain cancer risk among
long-term cell phone users and other health problems in the short term
including electrosensitivity, sperm damage and infertility, and reproductive
health risks in children.

Just because these devices are legal does not
mean they are safe

Although many health researchers, including
myself, have questioned the utility of assessing only a device’s SAR, currently
that is all governments measure and regulate. 

Governments want consumers
to believe that all legally marketed wireless devices are safe, and that the
SAR level does not matter as long as it meets the legal standard.  Yet no
study has proved that exposure to low-intensity microwave radiation is safe,
and thousands of peer-reviewed, published studies have found biologic effects
from such exposures. The research suggests that governments need to adopt more
stringent, biologically-based, standards to protect consumers’ health.

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Medical and public health professionals should
call on Google to end this experiment on Glass users or at least fully inform
consumers of the potential long-term health risks from wearing this device.

Google Glass SAR test report update
Following are
the results from the SAR test report for the Google
Glass Model GG1 (A4R-GG1; 
dated May 18, 2015):
Head
test: 0.293 W/kg for Wi-Fi (2.4 GHz) and 0.790 W/kg for Wi-Fi (5 GHz)
Simultaneous
transmission: 0.874 W/kg
Bluetooth
was excluded from testing as the maximum output power is 2.0 dBm.

https://www.saferemr.com/2017/03/google-glass-alert-potential-health.html