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A 2021 review of 73 studies on the effects of 5G and wireless to the human brain published in the International Journal of Radiation Biology finds wireless impacts resting electroencephalography(EEG). Various generations of telecommunication technology seem to contribute to similar effects. There is no special frequency nor signal structure related to a specific effect. However more research urgently needs to be done especially regarding the effects of millimeter waves.  The possible health effects caused by 5G are not limited to the impact on skin but can be widened by the excitation of nervous system. The low-frequency components in some 5G networks are similar to these of 4G and therefore, the possible health effects should have the same level.

“The theory of parametric excitation could explain the impact of the signal structure. The presence of the low-frequency components lower than 1000 Hz in the spectrum of RF EMF exposure (2G-5G) is an important factor to give rise to the RF EMF effects on the nervous system. The RF EMF effects are most probably caused by the telecommunication systems with low-frequency components lower than 100 Hz (4G, 5G FR1, 5G FR2).”


Possible health effects on the human brain by various generations of mobile telecommunication: a review based estimation of 5G impact
Hiie Hinrikus, Tarmo Koppel, Jaanus Lass, Hans Orru, Priit Roosipuu, Maie Bachmann. Possible health effects on the human brain by various generations of mobile telecommunication: a review based estimation of 5G impact. Int J Radiat Biol. 2022 Jan 7;1-48. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2022.2026516.AbstractPurpose: The deployment of new 5G NR technology has significantly raised public concerns in possible negative effects on human health by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF). The current review is aimed to clarify the differences between possible health effects caused by the various generations of telecommunication technology, especially discussing and projecting possible health effects by 5G. The review of experimental studies on the human brain over the last fifteen years and the discussion on physical mechanisms and factors determining the dependence of the RF EMF effects on frequency and signal structure have been performed to discover and explain the possible distinctions between health effects by different telecommunication generations.

Conclusions: The human experimental studies on RF EMF effects on the human brain by 2G, 3G and 4G at frequencies from 450 to 2500 MHz were available for analyses. The search for publications indicated no human experimental studies by 5G nor at the RF EMF frequencies higher than 2500 MHz. The results of the current review demonstrate no consistent relationship between the character of RF EMF effects and parameters of exposure by different generations (2G, 3G, 4G) of telecommunication technology. At the RF EMF frequencies lower than 10 GHz, the impact of 5G NR FR1 should have no principal differences compared to the previous generations. The radio frequencies used in 5G are even higher and the penetration depths of the fields are smaller, therefore the effect is rather lower than at previous generations. At the RF EMF frequencies higher than 10 GHz, the mechanism of the effects might differ and the impact of 5G NR FR2 becomes unpredictable. Existing knowledge about the mechanism of RF EMF effects at millimeter waves lacks sufficient experimental data and theoretical models for reliable conclusions. The insufficient knowledge about the possible health effects at millimeter waves and the lack of in vivo experimental studies on 5G NR underline an urgent need for the theoretical and experimental investigations of health effects by 5G NR, especially by 5G NR FR2.

Selected Excerpts from Dr. Joel Moskowitz at University of California at Berkeley . 

Experimental human in vivo studies at radiofrequency range 0.01-300 GHz published in peer-reviewed journals in the last fifteen years (2007–2021) were eligible, including all types of telecommunication signals and pulse-modulated radiofrequency radiation.

Altogether 73 publications were included in the review.

According to investigated parameters, the studies were divided into four categories: resting electroencephalography (EEG), sleep EEG and sleep quality, event related potentials (ERP) and cognition-behavior and brain metabolism. Statistically significant changes in an investigated parameter between sham and exposed conditions were considered as an effect.

Table 2 presents the studies that report the RF EMF effect or no effect at different signal structures and frequencies.


No clear interdependency between the generation of telecommunication technology and the character of RF EMF effects becomes evident from Table 2. All categories of the reported statistically significant effects as well as no effects include exposure from various generations of telecommunication systems and different RF EMF frequencies.
The rate of studies reporting effect is 78.6% at 450 MHz, 66.7% at 900 MHz, 43.6% at 1800 MHz, and 57.1% at 2450 MHz. The rate of positive findings is maximal, 78.6%, at 450 MHz band and minimal, 43.8%, at 1800 MHz band. However, along with the possible regular frequency dependent trend, the decrease could be related to other factors: differences in signal structures and varying number of experiments at different frequencies. The difference between results at 450 MHz and 1800 MHz can be partly related to the character of applied exposure: at 450 MHz remarkable part of studies have used meander-like pulse-modulated, not telecommunication signals like RF EMF exposure.
The rate of studies reporting effect is 33.3% at TETRA, 63.6% at GSM, 46.2% at WCDMA, 80% at LTE and 20% at WiFi signals. These numbers should be taken with caution due to the small number of studies, especially at LTE, WiFi and TETRA signals. Some trends can be mentioned: the rate of studies reporting RF EMF effect is higher than 50% at LTE and GSM signals, lower than 50% at WCDMA and TETRA signals and minimal at WiFi signals. This trend is not in accordance with the possible dependence on the used radiofrequency and needs explanation based on the characteristic behavior of the used signals.

Conclusions

In the current review, the experimental investigations on RF EMF effects on human EEG, ERP, cognition and behavior were analyzed at the exposure conditions typical for the 2G, 3G and 4G generations of mobile telecommunication technology at frequencies from 450 to 2500 MHz. The search for publications indicated no studies on human EEG, ERP, cognition and behavior by 5G nor at RF EMF frequencies higher than 2500 MHz.

The results of the current review demonstrate no consistent relationship between the character of RF EMF effects and parameters of exposure by different generations (2G, 3G, 4G) of mobile telecommunication technology. The following trends can be mentioned:

  1. Various generations of telecommunication technology seem to contribute to similar effects. There is no special frequency nor signal structure related to a specific effect.
  2. Some decrease in the rate of studies reporting effects with the increase of RF EMF frequency can be declared. However, due to the small number of studies, especially at higher frequencies (≥2 GHz), the results need to be considered with caution.

The existing knowledge about the mechanisms underlying RF EMF effects allows us to formulate the following conclusions:

  1. The dielectric polarization, a physical reason behind the RF EMF effects, decreases with the frequency of RF EMF. The electric permittivity is relatively stable at frequencies over 0.1 and 10 GHz, but decreases fast at frequencies higher than 10 GHz. At frequencies higher than 10 GHz, the effects related to the dielectric polarization become small. The scarce data about the RF EMF effects at frequencies higher than 10 GHz provide insufficient knowledge to clarify the possible interaction mechanisms.
  2. The theory of parametric excitation could explain the impact of the signal structure. The presence of the low-frequency components lower than 1000 Hz in the spectrum of RF EMF exposure (2G-5G) is an important factor to give rise to the RF EMF effects on the nervous system. The RF EMF effects are most probably caused by the telecommunication systems with low-frequency components lower than 100 Hz (4G, 5G FR1, 5G FR2).

Currently, there are no data about RF EMF effects caused by 5G telecommunication systems. Combining data of experimental results with existing knowledge in the mechanisms of RF EMF effects, the conclusions about the possible 5G effects can be derived:

  1. At the RF EMF frequencies lower than 10 GHz, the impact of 5G NR FR1 should have no principal differences compared to the previous generations. The frequencies used in 5G are even higher and the penetration depths of the fields are smaller, therefore the effect is rather lower than at previous generations.
  2. The low-frequency components in the 5G NR FR1 RF EMF spectrum are similar to these of 4G. Therefore, the possible health effects should have the same level.
  3. At the RF EMF frequencies higher than 10 GHz, the mechanism of the effects might change and the impact of 5G NR FR2 becomes unpredictable.
  4. The possible health effects caused by 5G NR FR2 are not limited to the impact on skin but can be widened by the excitation of nervous system.
  5. Existing knowledge about the mechanism of RF EMF effects at millimeter waves lacks sufficient experimental data and theoretical models for reliable conclusions.

The insufficient knowledge about the possible health effects at millimeter waves and the lack of in vivo experimental studies on 5G NR underline an urgent need for the theoretical and experimental investigations of health effects by 5G NR, especially by 5G NR FR2.

Environmental Health Trust has more facts about 5G here. 

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https://ehtrust.org/new-review-study-on-health-effects-of-5g-and-wireless-to-human-brain/ Source: Environmental Health Trust