Author Cindy L. Russell

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.016

Abstract

“The popularity, widespread use and increasing dependency on wireless technologies has spawned a telecommunications industrial revolution with increasing public exposure to broader and higher frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data through a variety of devices and infrastructure. On the horizon, a new generation of even shorter high frequency 5G wavelengths is being proposed to power the Internet of Things (IoT). The IoT promises us convenient and easy lifestyles with a massive 5G interconnected telecommunications network, however, the expansion of broadband with shorter wavelength radiofrequency radiation highlights the concern that health and safety issues remain unknown. Controversy continues with regards to harm from current 2G, 3G and 4G wireless technologies. 5G technologies are far less studied for human or environmental effects.

It is argued that the addition of this added high frequency 5G radiation to an already complex mix of lower frequencies, will contribute to a negative public health outcome both from both physical and mental health perspectives.

Radiofrequency radiation (RF) is increasingly being recognized as a new form of environmental pollution. Like other common toxic exposures, the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF EMR) will be problematic if not impossible to sort out epidemiologically as there no longer remains an unexposed control group. This is especially important considering these effects are likely magnified by synergistic toxic exposures and other common health risk behaviors. Effects can also be non-linear. Because this is the first generation to have cradle-to-grave lifespan exposure to this level of man-made microwave (RF EMR) radiofrequencies, it will be years or decades before the true health consequences are known. Precaution in the roll out of this new technology is strongly indicated.

This article will review relevant electromagnetic frequencies, exposure standards and current scientific literature on the health implications of 2G, 3G, 4G exposure, including some of the available literature on 5G frequencies. The question of what constitutes a public health issue will be raised, as well as the need for a precautionary approach in advancing new wireless technologies.”

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From page 4 of 12:

“3.3. The science of biological harm from non-ionizing radiation
A growing body of scientific literature documents evidence of nonthermal cellular damage from non-ionizing wireless radiation used in telecommunications. This RF EMR has been shown to cause an array of adverse effects on DNA integrity, cellular membranes, gene expression, protein synthesis, neuronal function, the blood brain barrier, melatonin production, sperm damage and immune dysfunction (Dasdag et al., 2015a; Dasdag et al., 2015a, 2015b; La Vignera et al.al., 2012; Levine et al.al., 2017). Human health effects associated with wireless radiation include infertility, neurodegenerative changes and brain cancer (Wyde, 2016; IARC, 2011) (;Sage and Carpenter, 2012;Kim et al., 2017; Kesari et al., 2011; Kesari et al., 2012a, 2012b; Zhang et al., 2016; Agarwal et al., 2011, 2008; Al-Quzwini et al., 2016; Banik, 2003; Consales, 2012; D’Andrea and Chalfin, 2000; Desai et al., 2009: Prasad et al., 2017). In addition, electrosensitivity to wireless and electrical devicesis being increasingly recognized by scientists and physicians (Hojo et al., 2016; Singh and Kapoor, 2014; Belpomme et al., 2015). A biologically based standard has been recommended with a scientific benchmark to a “lowest observable effect level” forRF EMR at 0.003uW/cm2 (Sage and Carpenter, 2012). There is also growing evidence of harm to trees, wildlife and other biosystems (Sivani and Sudarsanam, 2013).
3.3.1. Oxidation mechanism of cellular harm A well-studied potential mechanism of harm from radiofrequency radiation is one of cellular oxidation. Healthy biological systems require a balance of oxidation and antioxidation to fight infection and prevent disease (44, 45, 46). A review of the literature by Yakymenko et al. (2016) confirmed that in 93 of 100 studies, non-ionizing radiofrequency radiation caused a cellular stress response with excessive reactive oxygen species. He concluded, “oxidative stress induced by RFR exposure should be recognized as one of the primary mechanisms of the biological activity of this kind of radiation.” Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a normal part of cellular processes and cell signaling. Overproduction of ROS that is not balanced with either endogenous antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione (GSH), melatonin), or exogenous antioxidants (Vitamin C, Vitamin E, carotenoids, polyphenols) allows the formation of free radicals that oxidize and damage DNA, proteins, membrane lipids and mitochondria. Mitochondrial DNA is more susceptible to DNA damage than nuclear DNA as it lacks histones, has a reduced ability to repair DNA, and is not protected from mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (Görlach et al., 2015). Excess ROS have been associated with exposure to toxic chemicals, pesticides and metals (Abdollahi et al., 2004; Sharma et al., 2014: Drechsel and Patel, 2008). Oxidative damage from ROS has been increasing linked to the development and/or exacerbation of a number of chronic diseases and cancer (Thannickal and Fanburg, 2000; Valko et al., 2006; Bouayed and BohnBohn, 2010; Görlach et al., 2015; Alfadda and Sallam, 2012).”

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From p. 5:

Many biological responses to MMW irradiation can be initiated within the skin (Isaac et al., 2012; Ziskin, 2013; Gandhi and Riazi, 1986). Systemic signaling in the skin can result in physiological effects on the nervous system, heart, and immune system mediated through neuroendocrine mechanisms (Pakhomov et al., 1998). “

From p. 6-7

“3.4.5.4. Immune system. Kolomytseva et al. (2002), looked at the function of peripheral blood neutrophils under whole-body exposure of healthy mice to low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR, 42.0GHz, 0.15mW/cm2, 20min daily). The study showed 50% suppression of phagocytic activity of neutrophils after a single exposure to MMW radiation with the authors noting a profound effect on nonspecific immunity. Lushnikov et al. (2003) (1) investigated cell-mediated immunity and nonspecific in flammatory response in mice exposed to low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR, 42.0GHz, 0.1mW/cm2,20min daily). They found that MMW radiation reduced both immune and nonspecific inflammatory responses (130). Other research by the same group corroborated an anti-inflammatory effect of MMW that appeared mediated by the immune neuro-endocrine system. This could explain some of the reported beneficial effects. Long term exposure was not mentioned. Gapeev et al. (2003) showed for the first time that low-intensity extremely high- frequency MMH electromagnetic radiation in vivo causes effects on spatial organization of chromatin in cells of lymphoid organs. Chromatin is a complex of DNA and proteins that forms chromosomes within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. He exposed mice to a single whole-body exposure for 20min at 42.0GHz and 0.15mW/cm2. He suggests that the effects were due to involvement of the neuroendocrine and central nervous systems.”

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(1) Lushnikov, K.V., Gapeedv, A.V., Shumilina, Iu.V., Shibaev, N.V., Sadovnikov, V.B., Chmeris, N.K., 2003. Decrease in the intensity of the cellular immune response and nonspecific in flammation upon exposure to extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation. Biofizika 48 (5), 918–925. 〈https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/14582420〉.

http://www.electrosmogprevention.org/uncategorized/5g-immune-response/